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Version: 7.x.x


Subscriptions are supported with graphql-java. See their documentation first:

To make a function a subscription function you just have to have the return type wrapped in an implementation of a reactive-streams Publisher<T>. As an example, here is a function that uses Spring WebFlux to return a random number every second. Since Flux is an implementation of Publisher this is a valid method.

fun counter(): Flux<Int> = Flux.interval(Duration.ofSeconds(1)).map { Random.nextInt() }

Then in the toSchema method you just have to provide a List<TopLevelObject> the same way as queries and mutations are provided with the subscriptions argument.

config = schemaConfig,
queries = queries.toTopLevelObjects(),
mutations = mutations.toTopLevelObjects(),
subscriptions = subscriptions.toTopLevelObjects()

Flow Support

graphql-kotlin provides support for Kotlin Flow through FlowSubscriptionSchemaGeneratorHooks and FlowSubscriptionExecutionStrategy. Both hooks and execution strategy have to be configured in order to support Flow in your GraphQL server.

FlowSubscriptionSchemaGeneratorHooks are custom hooks that provide support for using Flow return type within the GraphQL server.

FlowSubscriptionExecutionStrategy is a reimplementation of the graphql-java default SubscriptionExecutionStrategy that adds support for handling Kotlin Flow types. Thanks to the Kotlin coroutines interoperability, this strategy works with any Publisher and will automatically convert any Flows to a Publisher.

Subscription Hooks


This hooks is called before resolving Kotlin return type to a GraphQL type and can be used to provide support for additional monads (e.g. Kotlin Flow).


This hook is called after a new subscription type is generated but before it is added to the schema. The other generator hooks are still called so you can add logic for the types and validation of subscriptions the same as queries and mutations.


This hook is called when generating the functions for each subscription. It allows for changing the rules of what classes can be used as the return type. By default, graphql-java supports org.reactivestreams.Publisher.

To effectively use this hook, you should also override the willResolveMonad hook to support the additional subscription return type. Your GraphQL server may also require a custom subscription execution strategy in order to process it at runtime.

Server Implementation

The server that runs your GraphQL schema will have to support some method for subscriptions, like WebSockets. graphql-kotlin-spring-server provides a default WebSocket based implementation. See more details in the server documentation.